Welcome秒速时时彩为梦而年轻!

 

英语听力

听力入门英语演讲VOA慢速英语美文听力教程英语新闻名校课程听力节目影视听力英语视频

科学美国人:哪种蛇的毒性更强?

kira86 于2019-06-17发布 l 已有人浏览
增大字体 减小字体
蛇的毒性并非都一样强,某些蛇的毒液只够杀死几只老鼠,而另一些蛇的毒液足够杀死50个成年人?为何蛇的毒性存在如此大的差异?请看本期科学美国人的报道。
    小E英语欢迎您,请点击播放按钮开始播放……

Harder-Working Snakes Pack Stronger Venom

好动的蛇含有更强的毒液

Movies like Raiders of the Lost Ark, Snakes on a Plane and even Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets have all relied on the fear of snakes to build suspense and anxiety. About a third of all people are at least a bit phobic about snakes.

像《夺宝奇兵》、《航班蛇患》甚至《哈利波特与密室》这样的电影都是靠对蛇的恐惧来制造悬念和焦虑的。所有人中,约三分之一的人至少有点怕蛇。

Some of the distress when it comes to the slithering serpents comes from their unpredictable movement patterns. But the fear also stems from knowing that, well, snake bites do kill a lot of people - perhaps as many as 94,000 people annually.

就蟒蛇而论,一些痛苦是源自蟒蛇不可预知的移动路线。但恐惧也源于知道毒蛇咬伤导致许多人死亡——死于毒蛇咬伤的人估计每年多达94000人。

But not all snake venom is created equal. Some snakes have venom only strong enough to kill a couple of mice. On the other hand, there's "the inland taipan in Australia, which is incredibly venomous. It has enough potent venom to kill about 50 adults. Humans."

但并不是所有蛇毒的毒性都一样强。某些蛇的毒液只够杀死几只老鼠。而另一方面,还有“澳大利亚毒性超强的内陆太攀蛇,它那毒性超强的毒液足足可以杀死约50个成年人。”

Kevin Healy, a lecturer in zoology at the National University of Ireland, Galway.

凯文·希利是爱尔兰国立高威大学(the National University of Ireland, Galway)的一名动物学讲师。

He wanted to know why snake venom toxicity varied so much, so he and his team looked at 102 different venomous snakes species. They examined how much venom the snakes had as well as what they ate and what kind of habitat they lived in. The key finding:

他想知道为什么蛇毒的毒性差异如此之大,所以他和团队观察了102种不同的毒蛇。他们研究了这些蛇有多少毒液,以及这些毒蛇吃什么,住在什么样的栖息地。关键的发现是:

Bigger snakes have more venom, in general. But the amount of the increase of that venom increases basically according to how much energy you burn per second, not how big your prey is, as you'd expect.

“一般而言,体积较大的蛇毒液更多。但毒液量的增加并不是如预期所想的由猎物的体积大小而决定的,而基本上是根据每秒消耗的能量而增加的。”

The study was in the journal Ecology Letters.

这项研究发表在《生态学快报》杂志上。

The researchers also found snakes that inhabited three-dimensional environments that include things like trees and water had less venom than snakes that live two-dimensionally - that is, on the ground.

研究人员还发现,生活在有树有水的三维环境中的蛇,比生活在二维环境(即地面)上的蛇的毒液要少。

Our guess is that that comes back to encounter rate. So if you live in a 3D environment, just the pure physics of living in a 3D environment means you will bump into more things. And so what that means is you might not need this really large reservoir of venom to kind of ensure that if you miss a prey item, that you have something for the next time because you're not going to get to encounter individuals that often.

“秒速时时彩的猜测是,这与遇难率有关。假如你(毒蛇)生活在三维环境中,仅仅是生活三维环境中的纯物理效应就意味着你(毒蛇)会遇到更多的东西。所以这意味着你(毒蛇)可能不需要那么大的毒蛇储存库来确保如果你错过了猎物,下次就没有东西吃了,因为你会经常遇到猎物。”

Whereas the 2D-dwelling snakes need to make sure that when they get a chance for a meal, their venom will pack a punch. Of course, only about a quarter of all snake species have venom at all. Keeping that in mind may make it possible to be braver than Indiana Jones - when it comes to snakes, at least. You should still be very scared to crawl under a moving truck.

而生活在二维环境中的蛇则需要确保当它们有机会进食时,它们的毒液会产生强烈的毒性。当然,只有约四分之一的蛇类有毒液,记住这一点可能会让你比印第安纳·琼斯(《夺宝奇兵》系列电影的主角)更勇敢——至少在蛇的问题上。但你你应该继续非常害怕从移动的卡车下爬过去。

小e英语Jewel翻译!

 1 2 下一页

英语新闻排行